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ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS 60 units of vocabulary reference and practice Self-study and classroom use IN USE Second Edition Advanced Michael McCarthy Felicity O’Dell ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS 60 units of vocabulary reference and practice Self-study and classroom use IN USE Second Edition Advanced Michael McCarthy Felicity O’Dell University Printing House, Cambridge CB2 8BS, United Kingdom One Liberty Plaza, 20th Floor, New York, NY 10006, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia 4843/24, 2nd Floor, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, Delhi – 110002, India 79 Anson Road, #06–04/06, Singapore 079906 Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge. It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence. www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781316628096 © Cambridge University Press 2017 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2007 Second Edition 2017 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Printed in Dubai by Oriental Press A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-1-316-62809-6 Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party Internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter. Contents Acknowledgements 3 Functions Using this book 4 22 Supporting and opposing people or views ; 48 Agreeing 50 Understanding and having ideas 52 Arranging things 54 Talking about size and number 56 Talking about success and failure 58 Discussing problems 60 Deciding and influencing 62 Exclamations and warnings 64 Learning about phrasal verbs Collocation and phrasal verbs 14 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Register 16 Work, study and finance Meaning and metaphor 18 Idioms using phrasal verbs 20 1 Phrasal verbs: what are they and how are they used? 6 2 3 4 Grammar of phrasal verbs 8 Phrasal nouns 10 Phrasal adjectives 12 Interesting aspects of phrasal verbs 5 6 7 8 Around and about 22 Down 24 In 26 31 32 33 34 35 36 Off 28 Personal life On 30 Out 32 Up 34 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Key particles 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Concepts 16 17 18 19 20 21 Time 36 Cause and effect 38 Memory 40 Making progress 42 Conflict and violence 44 Sound 46 Work 66 Study 68 Lectures and seminars 70 Writing essays 72 Business 74 Money 76 At home 78 Clothing and appearance 80 Relationships 82 Character and personal qualities 84 Feelings 86 Social life 88 Health and symptoms 90 The body 92 How people speak 94 How people move 96 English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 1 The world around us 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Nature 98 Weather 100 Places 102 Transport 104 The news 106 Secrets and lies 108 Rules and laws 110 Technology 112 Food and drink 114 Key verbs 56 57 58 59 60 2 Come 116 Get 118 Go 120 Keep 122 Take 124 Key 126 Mini dictionary 162 English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Acknowledgements English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Joy Godwin wrote two new units for the Second Edition: Unit 23, Agreeing, and Unit 33, Lectures and seminars. The publishers would like to thank Joy for her contribution to this edition. The authors and publishers acknowledge the following sources of copyright material and are grateful for the permissions granted. While every effort has been made, it has not always been possible to identify the sources of all the material used, or to trace all copyright holders. If any omissions are brought to our notice, we will be happy to include the appropriate acknowledgements on reprinting and in the next update to the digital edition, as applicable. Key: T = Top, B = Below, C = Centre, TL = Top Left, TR = Top Right, CL = Centre Left, CR = Centre Right, BR = Below Right, BL = Below Left. Photographs All the photographs are sourced from Getty Images. p. 12 (TR): Plume Creative; p. 12 (CL): Jim Craigmyle/First Light; p. 12 (BR): diego_cervo/iStock; p. 13 (TL): DonNichols/iStock; p. 13 (TR): Colin Anderson/Blend Images; p. 13 (BL): Camilo Morales/Blend Images; p. 13 (BR): View Pictures; p. 26: Thomas Barwick/Digital Vision; p. 32 (T): Robert Harding; p. 32 (B): iStock; p. 40 (T): ivanastar/iStock; p. 40 (C): Wolfgang Ehn/LOOK-foto; p. 40 (B): michaeljung/iStock; p. 43 (TL): fstop123/E+; p. 43 (BR): Hill Street Studios/Blend Images; p. 45: Maskot; p. 50: Ezra Bailey/Taxi; p. 52 (TR): Phil Boorman/Cultura; p. 52 (BR) & p. 66 (photo 3): Hero Images; p. 55 (TR): PhotoAlto/Frederic Cirou; p. 55 (BL): Image Source; p. 56: gilaxia/E+; p. 58 (TR): Chris Ryan/The Image Bank; p. 58 (CR): omersukrugoksu/iStock; p. 58 (BR): Dougal Waters/DigitalVision; p. 60: Ezra Bailey/Iconica; p. 66 (photo 1): Sam Diephuis/Blend Images; p. 66 (photo 2): Colin Hawkins/Stone; p. 66 (photo 4): Blend Images/Trinette Reed; p. 66 (photo 5): Indeed; p. 66 (photo 6): Peter Dazeley/Photographer’s Choice; p. 70 (TR): skynesher/E+; p. 70 (BR): monkeybusinessimages/iStock/Getty Images Plus; p. 76 (T): DmitriyOsipov/iStock; p. 76 (BR): RoBeDeRo/E+; p. 90 (TR): Chris Parker/Perspectives; p. 90 (BR): Betsie Van Der Meer/Taxi; p. 98 (photo 1): Thorsten Milse/robertharding; p. 98 (photo 2): ClaraNila/iStock; p. 98 (photo 3): EcoPic/iStock; p. 99: WLDavies/iStock; p. 101 (photo 1): Apriori1/iStock; p. 101 (photo 2): Walter Zerla/Blend Images; p. 101 (photo 3): Slava Bowman/EyeEm; p. 101 (photo 4): Anke Wittkowski/ EyeEm; p. 101 (photo 5): Edwin Remsberg/The Image Bank; p. 101 (photo 6): mshch/iStock; p. 102: Robin Bush/Oxford Scientific; p. 109: Di_Studio/iStock; p. 110 (TR): tunart/E+; p. 110 (BR): Image Source/DigitalVision; p. 114 (fruits): 109508Liane Riss; p. 114 (vegetables): Teubner/ StockFood Creative; p. 114 (pizza): Ed Nano/StockFood Creative; p. 114 (salad): Doram/E+; p. 120: StudioCampo; p. 121: Kirillica/iStock; p. 124: Yuri_Arcurs/DigitalVision. Illustrations Ludmila (KJA Artists), Katie Mac (NB Illustration), Martina (KJA Artists), Gavin Reece (New Division) and Miguel Diaz Rivas (Advocate Art). Cambridge Dictionaries Cambridge Dictionaries are the world’s most widely used dictionaries for learners of English. The dictionaries are available in print and online at dictionary.cambridge.org. Copyright © Cambridge University Press, reproduced with permission. English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 3 Using this book Why was this book written? It was written to help you take your knowledge of phrasal verbs to a more advanced level. It is intended for students who already have at least an upper intermediate level of English. Many of you will have already worked with English Phrasal Verbs in Use Intermediate and this book builds on the work done there. However, it does not matter if you have gained your knowledge of phrasal verbs in a different way. We do not assume that you have used English Phrasal Verbs in Use Intermediate, although we do present and practise either different phrasal verbs in this book or, occasionally, more advanced uses of verbs that were presented in the lower level book. How were the phrasal verbs in this book selected? The approximately 1,000 phrasal verbs and related nouns and adjectives which are presented in this book were mainly selected from those identified as significant by the CANCODE corpus of spoken English developed at the University of Nottingham in association with Cambridge University Press, and the Cambridge International Corpus (now known as the Cambridge English Corpus) of written and spoken English. The phrasal verbs selected are accordingly also to be found in the Cambridge Dictionary online by going to the following website: http://dictionary.cambridge.org How is the book organised? The book has 60 two-page units. The left-hand page explains the phrasal verbs that are presented in the unit. You will usually find an explanation of the meaning of the phrasal verb, an example of it in use and, where appropriate, some comments on when and how it is used. The exercises on the right-hand page check that you have understood the information on the left-hand page and give you practice in using the material presented. The units are organised into different sections. First we start with important information about phrasal verbs in general (Units 1–4): what they are, how their grammar works and so on. We strongly recommend that you do these units first. The next section looks at some interesting aspects of more advanced phrasal verbs, dealing with such important issues as collocation, register and metaphor. As these are themes that are returned to throughout the book, it is a good idea to work through these units before progressing to other more specific units. After these two introductory sections, there is a section dealing with some of the most common particles used in forming phrasal verbs. Working on these units will help you to gain a feeling for the force of these particles and will help you have a feeling for the meaning of a phrasal verb you are meeting for the first time. The next two sections deal with Concepts (e.g. Time) and Functions (e.g. Arranging things). These sections are followed by a large number of topic-based units focusing on different aspects of Work, Personal life and The world around us. The final section looks at some of the most common verbs which are used to form phrasal verbs. The book has a key to all the exercises so that you can check your answers. At the back of the book you will also find a useful Mini dictionary. This provides clear definitions of all the phrasal verbs and related noun and adjective forms that appear in this book. The Mini dictionary also indicates the unit number where you can find a particular phrasal verb. How should I use this book? It is strongly recommended that you work through Units 1–4 first so that you become familiar with the way phrasal verbs (and their associated nouns and adjectives) operate and with the terminology that is used in the rest of the book. Then we suggest that you move on to Units 5–8 and after that you may work on the units in any order that suits you. 4 English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced What else do I need in order to work with this book? You need a notebook or file so that you can write down the phrasal verbs that you study in the book as well as any others that you come across elsewhere. You also need to have access to a good dictionary. We strongly recommend the Cambridge Phrasal Verbs Dictionary as this gives you exactly the kind of information that you need to have about phrasal verbs. Your teacher, however, may also be able to recommend other dictionaries that you may find useful. So all that remains is to say Go for it! (Unit 30). We hope you’ll find this an enjoyable as well as a useful way to keep up and extend your knowledge of English phrasal verbs in use. English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 5 1 Phrasal verbs: what are they and how are they used? A What are phrasal verbs? B Why are phrasal verbs important? Phrasal verbs are verbs that consist of a verb and a particle (a preposition or adverb) or a verb and two particles (an adverb and a preposition, as in get on with or look forward to). They are identified by their grammar (more about that in Unit 2), but it is probably best to think of them as individual vocabulary items, to be learnt in phrases or chunks. They often – but not always – have a one-word equivalent. For example, you can come across a new phrasal verb or you can encounter it. You can pick up a language or you can acquire it. Come across and pick up sound less literary or formal than encounter or acquire. Phrasal verbs are extremely common in English. They are found in a wide variety of contexts. You may have noticed them in songs, for example the Beatles’ I’ll get by with a little help from my friends or Roll over Beethoven, Bob Marley’s Get up, stand up and Red Hot Chili Peppers’ Knock me down. You find them in film titles such as The Empire Strikes Back, Spirited Away, Along Came Polly or Cast Away. They are very frequent in newspaper headlines. Here are just a few examples: Country’s misplaced pride holds back its democracy Inquiry points to a cover-up Cricket: England holds out for a draw Turner adds up likely cost of pensions Phrasal verbs are common in less formal English, but you will also hear or see and need to use them in more formal contexts. Register is discussed in more detail in Unit 6. C Which phrasal verbs does this book deal with? This book is based on information gained from the Cambridge International Corpus (a huge computerised database of present-day English) about phrasal verbs and how they are used in contemporary English. It focuses on phrasal verbs more advanced students need to know – but in general does not deal with the verbs in the lower level English Phrasal Verbs in Use Intermediate. It includes phrasal nouns such as standby or onset (see Unit 3) and phrasal adjectives such as outgoing or worn out (see Unit 4). D What can I do to help myself master phrasal verbs? Try to think positively about them! And, now you are at a more advanced level, try not just to understand them but also to use them in your own speaking and writing. Keep an eye open for them whenever you are reading anything in English and make a note of any interesting ones you find. Write them down in a complete phrase or a sentence to fix in your mind how they are used. Be aware that one of the special features of phrasal verbs is that some of them have many different meanings – for example, you can pick something up from the floor, you can pick up a language or bad habits, the weather can pick up, you can pick up a bargain, a radio can pick up a signal, the economy can pick up, you can pick up a story where you left it, you can pick someone up in your car. Sometimes the meanings are clearly related, some being more literal and some more metaphorical. Unit 7 deals with this in more detail. In this book we may not present all the meanings of the verbs that are included. You may find others in English Phrasal Verbs in Use Intermediate and there are still more in the Cambridge Phrasal Verbs Dictionary. 6 English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Exercises 1.1 Underline the phrasal verbs in these texts. Remember the particle or preposition may not be immediately next to the verb. 1 I decided to take up gardening, so I took out a subscription to a gardening magazine and read up on the subject. I found out so many interesting things, such as the best time to plant flowers out for the summer and how to grow vegetables. I’ve really got into it now and spend hours in the garden every weekend. 2 The other day we went off on a hike in the mountains. We put our wet-weather gear on as the weather forecast wasn’t good. We set off early to avoid the rush hour and soon reached the starting point for our walk. The whole walk took about four hours, and when we got back we were exhausted. 3 I have to catch up on my coursework this weekend as I’ve fallen behind a bit. I worked on it till midnight last night, but I still have loads to do. I have to hand one essay in on Tuesday and another one on Friday. I’m not sure whether I’ll make it, but I’ll try. 1.2 Choose the correct particle to finish these song titles. 1 2 3 4 1.3 dictionary.cambridge.org 1.4 Can’t get you oﬀ from / out of / away from my head (Kylie Minogue) Hold you against / down / at (Jennifer Lopez) We can work it with / across / out (The Beatles) Send from / in / with the clowns (Barbra Streisand) Complete the sentences in the right-hand column with a phrasal noun or adjective based on the phrasal verbs in the left-hand column. Use a dictionary if necessary, and remember that the particle may come at the beginning or end of the noun or adjective. 1 The school took in some outstanding students last year. Last year’s outstanding students. 2 Some prisoners broke out of the local prison last night. There was a(n) prison last night. 3 It was an experience that put everyone off. It was a(n) experience. 4 She always speaks out and gives her opinion. She is very . 5 A lorry which had broken down was blocking the road. A road. included some at the local lorry was blocking the Match the headlines with the sentences from the stories. 1 BIG SHAKE-UP EXPECTED IN EDUCATION 2 MINISTER DENIES COVER-UP 3 LOCKOUT CONTINUES AT AVIATION PLANT 4 BREAKAWAY GROUP TO FORM NEW PARTY 5 POWER PLANT SHUTDOWN LEAVES 5,000 HOMES IN DARKNESS a) The dispute is now in its fifth week. b) Unity was no longer possible, a spokesperson said. c) The event happened at 7.45 p.m. with no warning. d) There will be major changes at all levels. e) There was no attempt to hide the truth, claimed Pamela Harding. English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 7 2 Grammar of phrasal verbs A Phrasal verbs with and without objects Some phrasal verbs take an object (transitive); others do not take an object (intransitive). 1 with object (transitive) no object (intransitive) They’re knocking down the old hotel. The path branched off 1 to the river. The plumber soon sorted out the shower problem. The noise of the train died away. She tied her hair back so she could swim faster. In the winter the lake froze over. if a road or path branches off, it goes in another direction Some verbs can be used both with and without an object, but the meaning may change. Use the context to decide if the verb has a different meaning from the one you are familiar with. Polly and Beth were so clever the teacher moved them up to a higher class. (with object) Polly and Beth moved up to a higher class. (no object = same meaning) I can drop you off at the station. (with object = drive you somewhere and leave you there) I was sitting in the armchair and I dropped off. (no object = fell asleep, different meaning) Some verbs must have two objects, one after the verb and one after the particle. I always associate that song with our holiday in Jamaica. Playing tennis for three hours every evening after school deprived her of her youth. B Position of the object In many cases, the particle may come before or after the object. The teacher marked the student down / marked down the student because her bibliography wasn’t up to standard. Very long objects usually come after the particle. The accident cut off domestic and industrial water and electricity supplies. When the object is a personal pronoun, the pronoun always comes before the particle. noun object personal pronoun object I picked my parents up / picked up my parents and drove them to the airport. I’ll pick you up at 5.30. (Not: I’ll pick up you at 5.30.) Some verbs (sometimes called prepositional verbs) must have the object after the particle, even if it is a pronoun. A good dictionary will tell you if this is so. We’ve had to contend with a lot of problems lately. (Not: contend a lot of problems with) [deal with a difficult or unpleasant situation] You probably already know some of these verbs (look for, look after, cope with). C Three-part verbs Some phrasal verbs have three parts – the verb and two particles. The object comes last. I will not put up with such bad behaviour. [tolerate] Other examples include look forward to, look down on, get on with, catch up on [do something you did not have time to do earlier], face up to [accept that a difficult or unpleasant situation exists]. 8 English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Exercises 2.1 Look at A. Do these sentences need an object? If they do, add an appropriate one in the correct place. example Last summer we knocked down. Yes. Knock down is transitive; it needs an object. Last summer we knocked down the old shed in our garden. 1 2 3 4 5 6 2.2 Put the words in the correct order to make sentences. If you can do it in two different ways, then do so. 1 2 3 4 5 2.3 pick / off / you / work / the / I / and / can / at / you / from / airport / up / drop / then from / that / put / teacher / she / The / not / would / said / with / such / up / class / rudeness / her villages / The / off / several / have / mountains / in / cut / the / floods your / doesn’t / the / improve / down / If / will / spelling / mark / examiners / you always / Margot / to / with / all / seems / her / cheerfully / problems / cope Rewrite each sentence using the verb in brackets in an appropriate form. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2.4 The sound of the violin slowly died away. If you’re ready to leave now, I can drop off at your office. The river in St Petersburg freezes over for several months each year. My son is so good at English that I think the teacher should move up to the advanced class. I associate with that evening we spent together in Rome. I was so tired that I dropped off in front of the TV. I’ll have to ask my daughter to get my Internet connection working. (sort) I was so tired after work that I fell asleep in the train on the way home. (drop) I was given a lower mark because my essay was over the word limit. (mark) Jason has no right to despise me – he’s no better than I am. (look) Lara doesn’t have a good relationship with one of her flatmates. (get) You have to accept the fact that you will probably never see each other again. (face) Maria has got a new job taking care of an old lady. (look) If you don’t let the children get enough sleep, they won’t be able to concentrate at school. (deprive) In Lapland we had to manage in some difficult driving conditions. (contend) The road to our house leaves the main road just after the service station. (branch) Write answers to these questions using the phrasal verb in brackets. 1 What are your plans for the summer holidays? (look forward to) 2 What homework have you got to do this weekend? (catch up on) 3 If you’ve been away somewhere by train and arrive back late, how do you usually get home from the station? (pick up) 4 What is your favourite album and why do you like it? (associate with) 5 What sorts of things make you feel stressed? (contend with) 6 How easy do you find it to fall asleep at night? (drop off) Over to you Look up these verbs in your dictionary: associate with, deprive of, contend with and face up to. How does your dictionary give information about the structures that these verbs require? What nouns do these verbs typically combine with according to the examples in your dictionary? English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 9 3 Phrasal nouns A What are phrasal nouns? Like phrasal verbs, phrasal nouns consist of a verb combined with a particle. The particle may come before or after the verb. phrasal noun meaning example standby ready to be used if necessary My wife’s a pilot and she’s on standby over the weekend. letdown disappointment I had been looking forward to the concert for weeks, but it turned out to be a terrible letdown. back-up support Nicholas can provide technical back-up if you need it. warm-up preparation The comedian who did the warm-up for the studio audience before the TV programme started was excellent. onset start (of something unpleasant) The match was halted by the onset of torrential rain. input contribution Try to come to the meeting – we’d value your input. overkill more of something than is needed Shall I add some more decorations to the cake or would that be overkill? We’re keeping the old equipment as a standby, in case of emergencies. Some such nouns have a corresponding phrasal verb, but some don’t. For example, there is no phrasal verb to kill over. The phrasal verb set on exists but it means attack. The verb related to onset is set in: We couldn’t continue playing after the rain set in. If the particle is in first place, then the phrasal noun is never written with a hyphen. If the particle comes second, then there is sometimes a hyphen between the two parts of the phrasal noun, particularly if that particle is in or up or if the phrasal noun is relatively infrequent, e.g. walk-on [small part, with no words, in a play], stand-off. B When are phrasal nouns used? Phrasal nouns are used frequently in newspapers and informal conversation. 1 2 STOWAWAY1 FOUND ON PLANE BREAKDOWN IN STRIKE TALKS STAND-OFF2 IN TRADE TALKS MANAGEMENT BUYOUT FOR HIGH STREET CHAIN WALKOUT3 AT CAR FACTORY HELP FOR BUSINESS START-UPS SINGER STAGES A COMEBACK MILITARY BUILD-UP4 CONTINUES person hiding in order to travel failure to reach agreement 3 4 strike increase in size or strength Annie Who do you think will get the job – Paul or Elsa? Lily Did you have a good time at football last night? Finn I don’t know. It’s a toss-up. [(informal) both seem equally likely] David Yes, but we didn’t have a real game, just a knockabout. Tip The stress is on the first syllable in these nouns regardless of whether this is the verb or the particle. 10 English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Exercises 3.1 Complete these sentences using a phrasal noun from A opposite. 1 2 3 4 5 The of winter meant that there was less food for the animals and birds. I thought having a 45-piece orchestra at their wedding really was , personally. The police officer radioed for before entering the bank. Let’s ask Joel what he thinks. I always find his very useful in these matters. TV producers find that studio audiences react better if they have a to watch before a live programme. 6 Our holiday in the Mediterranean was a bit of a . The hotel was second-rate and the food was awful. 7 Although Cameron usually rides his new road bike to school now, he’s kept his old bike as a . 3.2 Rewrite these sentences, starting with the cues given, using phrasal nouns from the opposite page instead of the underlined words. 1 Two men who had stowed away in the container were arrested when police opened it. The police opened the container and 2 Negotiations with union members broke down after a couple of hours. There was a 3 The management bought out the company in 2014. There was a 4 Last night all the workers walked out and the factory was forced to close. There was a 5 Military forces are continuing to build up on both sides of the border. The military 3.3 Correct the mistakes with the phrasal nouns in these sentences. 1 There has been a stand-up for several days now in the talks between the government and the rebels. Neither side will make any concessions. 2 Last year there were 15,000 new Internet business start-offs, most of which only survived for a few months. 3 After years without releasing an album, Madeleine Flame has staged a comeagain with her new collection of love songs. 4 Holly Have you decided where you’re going this summer? Flora Not really. It’s a toss-over whether it’ll be Italy or Greece. 5 I met Nasser and we just had a knockover on the college football pitch for half an hour. 3.4 dictionary.cambridge.org Choose the correct phrasal noun in each sentence. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 2 3 4 5 Putout / Output has increased this year and the factory is doing well. One of the robbers acted as lookout / outlook while the others robbed the bank. There was a sudden pourdown / downpour and we all got very wet. The breakout / outbreak of war in 1914 changed Europe for ever. Lift-oﬀ / Oﬀ-lift is scheduled for 07.00 on Friday and the astronauts will arrive at the space station later that day. 6 There was a break-in / an in-break at our office last night. Two computers were stolen. English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 11 4 Phrasal adjectives Some phrasal verbs have related adjectives. Make a note of these as you meet them. phrasal verb adjective meaning example go on ongoing one which continues We’ve had an ongoing problem with the computer system. wear out worn out weak, damaged through much use She was wearing old, worn-out shoes. break down brokendown one that has stopped working In our garage we’ve got an old broken-down fridge. However, this is not the case for all such adjectives. We can say ‘that way of thinking is very outdated’, but there is no related verb to date out; we can say ‘the restaurant was really overpriced’, but there is no phrasal verb to price over (the verb is ‘to overprice’). Note the phrasal adjectives in these extracts from people talking about their dreams and ambitions. I’m an outgoing sort of person, so I want a career where I mix with people. To be honest, I find the idea of a desk job quite off-putting1; I just don’t think I’d like it at all. I’d love to do something new, something completely different. 1 makes you not like it or not want to do it I’ve always been very outspoken. I’m never afraid to express my opinion, so I think a job campaigning for an environmental organisation would suit me. I would never accept any watered-down2 proposals and would make some very direct demands of our political leaders. 2 made less strong in order to make more people agree with them I always feel completely tired out at the end of the day in my present job and just want to sleep. Instead of feeling cheerful after a good weekend, I always feel quite downcast3 every Monday when the new week starts, so I want something new and more stimulating, preferably with a more go-ahead company which will bring interest and excitement into my work. 3 sad and depressed Here are some more examples in small advertisements and announcements. Forthcoming4 events at the City Stadium 4 happening in the near future Live-in nanny wanted for 3-year-old. Fold-up picnic chair for sale. As new. Caravan for sale: builtin fridge, freezer and satellite TV For rent, cosy one-room ﬂat with foldaway bed. Ideal for student. Tip When you come across a phrasal adjective, check to see whether it has a ‘matching’ verb and, if so, learn the two together. 12 English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Exercises 4.1 Replace the adjective in each sentence with a phrasal adjective with the opposite meaning. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4.2 What do these pictures show? 1 2 3 4 4.3 4.5 a a a a chair car oven bed Answer these questions about the words on the opposite page. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4.4 There was a new carpet on the stairs. The newsletter has a list of recent activities at the tennis club. What’s happened? You’re looking very cheerful! Unlike her sister, Emily is very introverted. I find the cover of this novel very attractive, don’t you? It doesn’t matter what time of day it is, Polina always looks fresh. We are not in the habit of going to such cheap restaurants. When you meet my boss I think you’ll find her surprisingly uncommunicative. Can you think of one advantage and one disadvantage for parents of having a live-in nanny? In what kind of room might it be particularly useful to have a foldaway bed? What kind of job would not be suitable for a very outspoken person? When might you want to give a watered-down version of something that happened to you? What kind of job requires you to be outgoing? What kind of problem tends to be ongoing? What might you find off-putting if you are having a meal in a restaurant? What sorts of things do you think are often overpriced? Match the pairs of synonyms in the box below. broken-down candid continuing diluted downcast dynamic exhausted extrovert forthcoming future go-ahead miserable not working obsolete off-putting ongoing outdated outgoing outspoken repellent shabby tired-out watered-down worn out Here are some more phrasal adjectives. Work out from the context what they mean and rewrite the sentences replacing the underlined words with a word or phrase that means the same. 1 2 3 4 5 If the union doesn’t accept our terms, what should we have as our fallback position? Clara always feels left out when her brother’s friends come round to play. Julian is usually chatty but his sister is not very forthcoming. You shouldn’t get so worked up about every little thing. Zack met me at the airport with outstretched arms. English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 13 5 Collocation and phrasal verbs A Why is collocation important? Collocation means the way words combine with one another. When learning a phrasal verb, it is important to note what kinds of words the verb is typically used with. For example, can it be used for both people and things, or only for people, or only for things? Is it typically used with negative things or can it be used for both positive and negative things? Look at this chart for the verb pore over [study or look carefully at something] and note how the objects it is used with refer especially to books or documents. a document a book pore over a list of names a manuscript Making a note of collocations in this way will help you remember the meaning of the phrasal verb. It is a good idea to learn the verb and its typical collocations as chunks of language. This will help you to speak and write more fluently. B Collocations with positive or negative/problematic things Make a note if a phrasal verb collocates especially with positive or negative things. ✓ typical/correct collocation ✗ untypical/wrong collocation The plan was riddled with problems ✓ good ideas ✗ . The rain ✓ The traffic ✓ The fine weather ✗ has eased off/up now. After hours of discussion, we hit on a good idea ✓ the solution ✓ a stupid plan ✗ . C Collocations with objects denoting people or things Make a note if a phrasal verb collocates especially with objects denoting people or things, or both. I’ve really gone off Sienna ✓ cheese ✓ recently. I’d advise you to keep in with the boss ✓ Andrew ✓ the exam system ✗ . D Collocations with subjects denoting people or things Make a note if a phrasal verb collocates especially with subjects denoting people or things, or both. As we opened the door, water streamed into the room. ✓ People were streaming into the meeting. ✓ I have to dash off. I have a meeting in ten minutes. ✓ The car dashed off along the motorway. ✗ [headed off / drove off at high speed would be more typical] E Collocations with particular situations Make a note of particular situations a phrasal verb typically refers to. He just sailed through his exams ✓ the interview ✓ his breakfast ✗ . [sail through is used with challenging things and situations] I was always hankering after an easier life ✓ sweet food while I was on a diet ✓ passing my exams ✗ . [hanker after is most often used with things we cannot or should not have] 14 English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Exercises 5.1 Answer the following questions. 1 What does the word collocation mean? 2 Which of these are correct collocations? a) pore over a book b) pore over a view c) pore over a manuscript d) pore over a flower e) pore over a list of names 3 What do the nouns that collocate with pore over have in common? 4 Why is it helpful to learn phrasal verbs in collocations? 5 What sorts of things might you note down about what a phrasal verb collocates with? 5.2 Do the sentences below show appropriate collocations or not? 1 2 3 4 5 5.3 When we took our old dog to the vet, she discovered he was riddled with disease. The pain in his leg seems to be beginning to ease off now. You can always rely on Joseph to hit on an idea that will never work. I used to enjoy that TV series but I’ve gone off it a bit now. It’s usually a good idea to keep in with your bank account. Complete these sentences using the correct particles. your lost youth. 1 There is no point in hankering 2 When her housemate rang to say that water was streaming the basement, Maria dashed to the station to catch a train home. 3 I always find job interviews really difficult, but my brother seems to sail them. 4 We’ll have to cut down that tree – it’s riddled disease. 5 When my sister was pregnant she drank a lot of milk, but she completely went tea and coffee. 6 Liam was bullied a bit when he started school, but it seems to have eased now. 7 You should apologise to Juliette’s mother. It’s sensible to keep your future in-laws. 5.4 Rewrite each sentence using the verb in brackets in an appropriate form. 1 2 3 4 5 Helena easily passed her driving test. (sail) I really don’t like coffee any more. (go) The wind is less strong than it was now. (ease) If I have a problem, I find a walk by the sea often helps me to find a solution. (hit) Masses of people entered the shop as soon as it opened, hoping to find a bargain in the sale. (stream) 6 There are a lot of holes in his argument. (riddle) Over to you Look back at any other phrasal verbs you have recently written in your vocabulary notebooks. Write them down in some typical collocations. You will find these in the example sentences of a good dictionary, e.g. the Cambridge Phrasal Verbs Dictionary. English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 15 6 Register A Phrasal verbs in the English lexicon The word register is often used to refer to whether a word is formal or informal. It can also be used to refer to the language associated with a particular job or interest. English vocabulary is particularly rich because it combines a large vocabulary originating from Anglo-Saxon roots with a large vocabulary originating from Latin or French. This means that English often has words with very similar meanings from each of these sources. To give a phrasal verb example, you can put forward or propose an idea, where put forward (like the majority of phrasal verbs) has a typical Anglo-Saxon etymology, whereas propose is of Latin origin. It is interesting to note that propose comes from the Latin prefix pro- [= forward] added to the Latin root -pose [= put]; there are many other examples of where the Latin etymology parallels the etymology of its phrasal verb equivalent. Words of Latin or French origin tend to be more formal and so ‘proposing an idea’ is found more frequently in formal written English than in informal spoken English. Although phrasal verbs are typical of more informal English, many – like put forward, for example – will also be found in neutral or formal as well as informal contexts. Most phrasal verbs are like this. Some phrasal verbs, however, are only used in either informal or formal situations. We indicate throughout the book when this is the case. B Informal phrasal verbs Serge How’s things, Jessie? Is work OK these days? Jessica Not really. Sophie’s gunning for1 me. I think she’s after my job. I mucked up2 an important deal yesterday and she was so thrilled! Serge Don’t pay any attention to her. Jessica I know, but the trouble is Tim’s ganged up with3 her now too. So it’s got much worse. They hang around4 together in every break and after work too. If Sophie doesn’t shoot down5 one of my ideas, Tim does. Serge Well, they’re asking for6 trouble, aren’t they? You know your boss respects you, don’t you? Jessica Yes, I couldn’t ask for7 a better boss, that’s for sure. But she’s got more important things on her plate than sorting out petty office squabbles. 1 5 (only used in continuous) trying to cause 6 trouble for somebody 2 did very badly with 3 7 formed a group to act against me 4 spend a lot of time (with) C criticise strongly (only used in continuous) behaving in a way that is sure to create problems for them couldn’t ever find, because this person (or thing) is the best of their kind Formal phrasal verbs In the first five examples below, the base verb is in itself formal. The base verb here is of Latin rather than Anglo-Saxon origin. In the final three examples, it is the specific usage rather than the base verb which is formal. The authorities finally acceded to his request for a work permit. [agreed to] We will attend to your request in due course. [deal with] He ascribes his success to hard work in his youth. [explains] The presence of the gene may predispose a person to heart disease. [make more likely] James Hansen is to preside over the government inquiry. [be in charge of] Some new facts have emerged which bear on the Smith case. [are connected to] The castaways had to call on all their strength to survive. [use] All her life the princess had never wanted for anything. [needed] 16 English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Exercises 6.1 Replace the phrasal verbs in the letter with verbs from the box to make it more formal. meet continue complain respond remedy investigate achieve Reply Forward Dear Mr Janes, Thank you for your letter of 23 May going on about the bad service you experienced at this hotel. I promise you we will look into the problem at once and get back to you as soon as possible. We always try to go for the highest standards of service, and if we have failed to live up to those standards we will immediately seek to sort out the situation. Meanwhile we hope you will go on making Miromana Hotels your first choice for all your business and leisure travel. Yours sincerely, G. H. Logan (General Manager) 6.2 Now do the opposite with these sentences. Use phrasal verbs from the box to make the sentences less formal. Use a dictionary if necessary. go into call in on dictionary.cambridge.org 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 6.3 fall through buy up go over to take on look after ask out Will you attend to Aunt Elsie while I go and get the children’s supper ready? He explored the subject in great detail in his lecture. When the president died his son assumed the title of Great Leader. I like her. Do you think I should invite her to go out with me? During the war he defected to the enemy side and was killed in action. She purchased all the shares in the company last year. The local newspaper published a story about a strange animal seen in the city park. I think I’ll visit my grandfather on the way home from work. The deal collapsed at the last minute. I managed to survive on about €70 a day when I was travelling. Which professional registers are these phrasal verbs associated with? Put each of them into one of the three categories below. Use a dictionary if necessary. sell up back up turn over dictionary.cambridge.org sum up gloss over bail out computers and technology 6.4 put out get by log in scroll down/up carry forward take over base on square up academic lectures/writing put forward hack into print off money and business Rewrite each sentence using the word in brackets in an appropriate form. 1 2 3 4 5 Despite his family’s poverty, Alfie always has everything he needs. (want) You must inform the police if you have evidence relating to the case. (bear) Jack will have to use all his ingenuity to resolve the situation. (call) The president believes his party’s victory is due to his leadership. (ascribe) The manager will deal with your enquiry without delay. (attend) English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 17 7 Meaning and metaphor A Multiple meanings Many phrasal verbs have more than one meaning. Often, the basic meaning relates to some physical action, while other meanings are metaphorical (i.e. they are figurative, not literal). For example, the meanings in the grey boxes below are literal and the others are figurative. phrasal verb run over brush sth/sb off B definition of phrasal verb example hit sth/sb with a moving vehicle and injure or kill them I ran over a rabbit as I was driving home. It really upset me. go on after its expected time The meeting ran over so I missed my train. read quickly to make sure something is correct Could we just run over the schedule again to make sure it’s all going to work? use a brush (or hand) to remove something I brushed off the dust from my shoes. refuse to listen to what someone says, or refuse to think about something seriously The boss just brushed him off and told him to get back to work. Examples of metaphors based on quick or violent actions The price of petrol has shot up this year. [gone up rapidly and sharply] I don’t want to just dive into a new job without carefully considering it. [start doing something suddenly and energetically without thinking about it] The leader of the opposition party has hit out at the government’s new proposals on tax. [strongly criticised, typical of journalism] My success in the exam spurred me on to study even harder. [spurs are worn on the ankle and are used to make a horse go faster; here the meaning is ‘encouraged me’] C Metaphors and context The context will usually tell you that a verb is being used in a metaphorical way. Look at these extracts from the advice column of a magazine which use phrasal verbs metaphorically rather than literally. Don’t just stand by and let others have all the fun. It’s time to strike out on your own and do something completely different. Sweep aside all your inhibitions and start living life to the full. It all boils down to whether you are prepared to take control of life or let life control you. D You must ﬁnd the strength to drag yourself away from your domestic responsibilities for a short while and stop feeling sandwiched between your family and your career. Doing everything singlehanded is eating into all your free time and you need time to think. You can’t be expected to soldier on on your own any longer. More examples of phrasal verbs used metaphorically She searched in her bag and fished out an old photograph. We wandered round the old market, just drinking in the atmosphere. He spends hours glued to his computer every evening. We found this vase when we were just nosing around in an antique shop. People were flooding into the stadium two hours before the concert. 18 English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Exercises 7.1 Look at A and B opposite. Read the email and then answer the questions below using your own words rather than the phrasal verbs in the email. Reply Forward Hi Bella Sorry to miss you this morning – the budget meeting ran over and I just couldn’t leave. We had to try to ﬁnd some ways to cope with the way that our transport costs have shot up over the last few months. Luke was ﬁnding fault with all my ideas and I had to stay and try to defend them as best I could. He always takes any opportunity to hit out at me – I don’t know why. Anyway, could we meet later today to run over the agenda for tomorrow’s meeting? My problems today have spurred me on to succeed tomorrow. We mustn’t just dive into our proposal without preparing the ground carefully. It’d be a disaster if the boss just brushed us oﬀ after all that work! Rory 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7.2 Rewrite the underlined parts of these sentences using a phrasal verb from C or D opposite. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7.3 dictionary.cambridge.org It’s not good for children to spend too much time just watching a screen. Choosing a university course is a matter of deciding what you want to do with your life. I arrived at the stadium early and watched the other spectators entering in large numbers. Laura reluctantly left the window and returned to her desk. Sam was staring at Megan, listening intently to every word she said. George dismissed all objections to his plan, saying they were unimportant. Complete these sentences with a phrasal verb from the opposite page. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.4 When did the budget meeting end? What has happened to transport costs recently? How does Luke usually behave towards Rory? What does Rory want to do with Bella this afternoon regarding tomorrow’s agenda? Has today’s meeting made Rory more or less determined about tomorrow’s meeting? What does Rory not want to do with their proposal at tomorrow’s meeting? What is he afraid that the boss might do to them? and lets such terrible things happen! It is terrible how the world just Despite all his difficulties, Douglas does his best to bravely . William reached into his pocket and his passport. the back streets. When I go to a new town I love You mustn’t let your social life your study time. The politician simply the allegations being made against him. When he was 30 Mario left his uncle’s business and on his own. Our little house is a bank and a supermarket. Here are some more phrasal verbs which can be used metaphorically. How are their literal and metaphorical meanings connected? Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 I’ve left you some soup which you can warm up when you get home. A fantastic singer warmed up the audience before the main programme started. 2 The boy wasn’t looking where he was going and fell into a hole in the ground. Alexander fell into his first job as soon as he had left university. 3 The cat got up the tree but didn’t seem able to climb down. Molly always wants to win an argument – you’ll never get her to climb down. English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 19 8 Idioms using phrasal verbs A Problems at work and home Reply Forward Hi Millie, How’s your awful new boss? Still planning a total reorganisation of the office or have you persuaded her not to throw the baby out with the bathwater1? Let me know if you need an evening out to let off steam2 – it’s about time we met up again. We’ve been told at our company that we won’t be getting a salary increase this year. They took the sting out of it3 by giving us a Christmas bonus, but people are not happy. My boss is still as difficult as ever. Her personal assistant’s resigned, but I think that might be cutting off her nose to spite her face4 as she’ll find it hard to find anything else as well-paid. She can usually run rings round5 anyone, so it must have been a shock for her to get a boss she couldn’t manipulate. I badly need your advice. Joey’s beginning to turn up the heat in our relationship – he’s dropping hints about marriage. He invited me to meet his parents last weekend. We got on like a house on fire6 but I just don’t feel ready to put down roots yet. Should I stop seeing him? I don’t want to but maybe it’d be kinder? I can’t make up my mind. Let me know what you think. Lydia 1 4 get rid of the good parts of something as well as the bad parts 2 5 talk or act in a way that helps get rid of 6 strong feelings 3 make something that is unpleasant less so B Progress meeting Oscar Well, Anna, you’ve been here for a month now and it’s time we had a little chat. Anna OK. Well, I know I got off on the wrong foot1 by deleting all last year’s client information, but I hope you’ll agree I’ve got my act together2 now? Oscar Erm, not exactly. I’ve tried my best to show you where you’re going wrong, but I just appear to be going round in circles3. Nothing ever seems to get any better. You dig your heels in4 and don’t make any effort to change. Anna Oh, I don’t think that’s fair. I’m sure Stan would put in a good word for me5. I’ve helped him out with one of his projects. Oscar Hmm, well Stan needs to clean up his act6 too. If you don’t start making up for lost time7 soon, we’re going to have to let you go. Anna Oh, no, please. Just give me a bit more authority and I’ll come into my own8. Oscar Oh, Anna. Wake up to the fact9 that you won’t get any more authority unless you pull out all the stops10 and your work improves significantly. 1 6 started badly 7 (informal) organised myself more effectively 3 using a lot of time and effort with no results 4 8 refuse to do what others try to persuade you 9 to do 5 10 say good things about me to someone in authority 2 20 doing something because you are angry though it may cause you more problems outwit, be cleverer than immediately liked each other English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced (informal) start to behave better doing something to compensate for not doing it previously be very successful be realistic do all you can Exercises 8.1 Answer these questions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 8.2 What should you not throw out with the bathwater? What expression uses a burning house as a metaphor for a good relationship? What expression uses steam as a metaphor for strong feelings? According to the idiom, why might people cut off their own nose? What idiom means ‘ease an unpleasant situation’ and refers to what bees can do? Which two phrasal verb idioms refer to circular motion? Complete these sentences using expressions from 8.1. 1 Refusing that job offer just because you’re annoyed about the interview would be cutting your to your . 2 When she came back to the UK, Harriet decided it was time she down and she bought a little cottage not far from here. 3 The robbers round the police. It took two years to catch them. 4 The extra day’s holiday we offered should take the out the pay cut. 5 I felt as if I was just going in and getting nowhere. 6 We should keep the better parts of the old system when we move over to the new system. We don’t want to the out with the bathwater. 7 Isaac and Matthew on like a on fire; they’re great friends. 8 I don’t think she was really angry with you; she was just steam. 8.3 Cross out the five mistakes in this text and write the correct form in the box next to that line. After a year of travelling, I decided to put my act together and get a job. A friend who worked for a bank put in some good words for me. In fact he pushed in all the stops and arranged for me to have lunch with the CEO. I got on the wrong feet by saying I wasn’t ready to plant down roots yet; I think they were looking for someone to make a long-term commitment. I should have kept quiet! 8.4 1 2 3 get 4 5 Complete these dialogues using phrasal verbs from the opposite page so that the second speaker agrees with and repeats more or less what the first speaker says. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Michael Alice seems determined not to agree to the new plan. Juan Yes, she really seems to be digging Sarah Wow, my Uncle Joshua is 75 and he’s getting married for the first time! Amelia Really? He’s obviously trying to make up Luis Charles lives in a fantasy world. He thinks he can make a living writing poetry. Ava That’s crazy! He should wake up Eva Teddy has been very successful in his new career. Gabriel Yes, he really seems to have come into Robert The boss seems to be getting very serious about the new sales campaign lately. Dan Yes, he’s really turning up Franck I think it’s time I made a decision. Daisy Yes, it’s time for you to make up . ! that poets never make any money! . . . English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 21 9 Around and about Around and about are often (but not always) interchangeable in phrasal verbs. A good dictionary will tell you whether they can both be used. The only verbs on this page where both are not possible are marked *. A Basic meaning of around and about in phrasal verbs Around and about keep a lot of their basic meaning in many phrasal verbs. They often indicate activities and situations taking place in various locations, often without having a clear direction or order. There were books lying around everywhere in the room. The children were running about in the garden. Phrasal verbs with around and about are often informal. Look at this conversation between two teachers. Holly Rumours have been flying around the staffroom lately that you’re leaving. Is it true? Jake It amazes me how news gets around in this place! I did say to one or two people that I was tired of being bossed around by you-know-who, and, I have asked around* here and there to see if they need any full-time teachers, but I haven’t made a decision yet. Holly Oh, right. I heard the other day that Eleanor is sick of running around* after you-knowwho sorting out problems he’s caused. So she might leave too. By the way, do you have a copy of that new grammar book? I want to show it to my students. My copy’s floating about here somewhere but I just can’t find it. Jake Yes, I think I have a copy lying around here somewhere … Yes, here you are. Holly Thanks very much. So, what are you up to this weekened? Jake Nothing much, just pottering about at home, really. Oh goodness! Is that the time? I have a class now. Holly OK, see you later. Don’t forget that we switched our classrooms around this afternoon. You’re in Room 2. Note that in boss around, around emphasises the fact that the person is frequently being bossed by someone else, not the fact that this occurs in different places. B Other uses of around and about Here are some other phrasal verbs which use around and about. Children! Stop playing around! Sit politely. [behaving stupidly] The neighbours have been banging about next door all morning. I wonder what they’re doing. [making loud noises, for example hammering or moving heavy objects] Theo was clowning around at the party last night. It got very irritating. [acting in a silly way] Politicians often skirt around* the truth and don’t give direct answers to questions. [avoid discussing a difficult subject or problem] It’s a problem, but I’m sure we can work around* it in some way. [organise our activities to ensure that the problem does not prevent us from doing what we want to do] 22 English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Exercises 9.1 9.2 Choose the correct word to complete these sentences. 1 I couldn’t get to sleep because of Owen around upstairs. a) banging b) lying c) switching 2 Wait a moment – the document you need is about here somewhere. a) flying b) floating c) running 3 I think we should stop the car and let the children around for a bit. a) get b) lie c) run 4 The room looks different. Have you the furniture around? a) pottered b) switched c) banged 5 If you around, you might be able to find someone with a car for sale. a) ask b) boss c) play 6 I hate the way rumours around the office. a) run b) fly c) lie 7 You really shouldn’t leave such important papers about. a) clowning b) lying c) playing around with pieces of fruit. 8 Yanis made the children laugh by a) banging b) getting c) clowning Complete each dialogue using a verb from the box with around or about. boss get ask clown lie 1 2 3 9.3 4 Isla I need to find a flat to rent in London. Do you know of anything available? Katie No, but I’ll Sara Do you know where the extension lead is? Milo Yes, I think it might be my study somewhere. Adam How did Hugo know we’re getting married? Zara Well, news like that quickly. . in very 5 Ava Do you get on well with your sister? Ella Yes, on the whole, though she me a bit too much. Amber What do you think of Freddie? Louis I find the way he always a bit childish. Complete these sentences with phrasal verbs from the opposite page. Put the verb in the correct form. Sometimes more than one verb is possible. 1 I thought Alex was just in his bedroom today, but in fact he’s been really busy. He’s tidied up all the books and papers that were on the floor. He’s also his bed and his desk, which makes the room feel bigger. 2 When I was a child I used to hate visiting Great Uncle Edward. He wouldn’t allow us children to in case we broke anything, and he was always us , getting us to after him, doing odd jobs for him. 3 Do you think we could find a way to the problem of having to get written permission from everyone to use the photographs in our book? 4 I think we should be honest with everyone and not try to the issue. 5 We hear people every night in the flat upstairs. All sorts of rumours have been among the neighbours as to what is going on up there. Over to you Look up these words in your dictionary: crowd around, knock sth about/around, knock sb about/ around, turn around, turn sth around, roll about/around, blunder about/around. Make a note of the meanings of these words and record them with an example sentence. English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 23 10 Down A Down meaning lower 1 2 B C Lottie Well, did he come down1 on the price? Tom I knocked him down2 by £100 but he wouldn’t go any lower. Lottie Oh, so that’s why you slammed the catalogue down3 when you finished? Tom No, that was because I was distracted by the music and annoyed. Why didn’t you turn the volume down4? I could hardly hear a word he was saying! suggest or agree to a lower price persuaded him to reduce the price 3 4 put down with a lot of force reduce the amount of sound Down suggesting preventing or restraining phrasal verb definition of phrasal verb example shout down sb or shout sb down shout in order to prevent someone who you disagree with from being heard I couldn’t hear what the prime minister was saying because some people at the front were shouting him down. pin down sb or pin sb down force someone to stay in a horizontal position by holding them Two police officers pinned the robber down while the third handcuffed him. tie down sth/sb or tie sth/sb down use ropes to fasten someone or something in a particular position The tent is secure, but make sure you tie down anything else that might blow away in the storm. tie sb down (metaphorical meaning of the previous verb) prevent someone from having the freedom to do what they want to do My brother prefers to take temporary work because he hates the idea of being tied down. Other meanings of down Not working The computer system is always going down. We need a new one. [stopping working] Don’t forget to save your documents before you shut the computer down. [turn off] Depressed or sad This rain is getting me down. [making me feel depressed] On a list Freya asked me to put her down for a copy of the report when it’s published. [put on a list to arrange for her to have something] You can put me down to organise the refreshments. [put on a list to arrange for me to do something] Killed/injured The terrorists mercilessly gunned down their victims. [shot and killed or seriously injured] We had to have our poor old dog put down last week; she was very sick. [put to death] Surviving through time The legend has come down to us from the ancient records of the Quilhoa people. [passed from generation to generation] Be considered or remembered This will go down in history as the most important event of the century. [be remembered] My workshop went down really well. [was well-received] 24 English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Exercises 10.1 Read these sentences and then answer the questions below by writing the correct name in the box. Harry Irving felt he had lost his freedom when he and Antonia had their first baby. Oliver Reece was forced to the ground and held there by two security guards. People protested so loudly that no one could hear what Heidi Knight had to say. Mia Calvo persuaded the man to reduce the price by £500. Lucas Hind was shot dead yesterday by terrorists. 1 2 3 4 5 10.2 Who was shouted down? Who was gunned down? Who felt tied down? Who was pinned down? Who managed to knock someone down? Rewrite the underlined parts of these sentences using a phrasal verb from the opposite page. Make any other necessary changes. 1 The computer system suddenly stopped working this morning, so we’re doing everything manually at the moment. 2 I’m sorry I’m so irritable. Things have been depressing me lately. 3 Shall I write your name on my list to sponsor me for the charity walk? 4 This event will be remembered in history as the worst catastrophe this country has ever suffered. 5 The company had to stop all their machines during the 24-hour strike at the factory. 6 The salesman agreed to a lower price, and after that we even managed to persuade him to reduce the price by a further 10%. 7 Many everyday remedies for minor ailments have reached us over time from our ancestors. 10.3 Answer the following questions using a phrasal verb from the opposite page. 1 2 3 4 5 10.4 dictionary.cambridge.org What might someone do if they get very angry during a phone call? What might you do to a very old and sick dog or cat? What would you do to stop a tent from blowing away? If work is making you depressed, what is it doing to you emotionally? If your radio was too loud, what would you do? Which of the meanings given are possible or likely interpretations of the phrasal verbs in these sentences? More than one interpretation may be possible. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 I think you should take this down. a) write it b) drink it c) dismantle it 2 The house has come down. a) has been rebuilt b) is for sale at a lower price c) has been demolished 3 She turned it down. a) reduced the heat b) refused the offer c) put the collar of her coat in its normal position 4 They watered it down. a) extinguished a fire using water b) added water to make a liquid less strong c) made an idea, opinion or argument less strong English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 25 11 In The particle in, when used with phrasal verbs, keeps a lot of its basic meaning, often referring to things which move towards being, or are already, ‘within something’ or are ‘included in something’. Look at this transcript of a meeting at a computer software company. Dominic, the Chief Executive, who chairs the meeting, speaks first. Note the phrasal verbs with in. Chair Well, I think we should begin. One of our colleagues from Manchester has been delayed, but I’ve asked David to show her in when she gets here, so she’ll join us later, I hope. Now, first item is the Musicmatch software suite, which, I like to think, has helped to usher in1 a new era in music production. It’s been bringing in good profits, and we’ve certainly been able to cash in on the recent crash of one of our major rivals, as we all know, but with an economic recession setting in now, we may want to rethink our pricing so that it fits in better with the rest of our range. We also need to factor in2 the loss of a major client – we lost the Popmaster contract this year. Grace Can I come in here, Dominic? Ben and I are already looking at this and we’ll have something to report next week. Basically we hope to build in an automatic upgrade system so that customers will find it easier to stay with us. Ben’s looking at the cost. I said I’d pitch in3 so that we can get it moving faster. Chair OK, well, maybe we can leave that. But I’d just like to say, remember, we need flexibility – we don’t want to become boxed in4 by our own systems. We’ll come back to it. David Sorry to cut in, Dominic. Amy Peckham is here. Chair Ah, good. Our colleague from Manchester has arrived. Hello, Amy. You’re very welcome. Can you squash in there somewhere? Sorry the room is a bit small. Amy Peckham, everyone. Some of you know her already. Right, I suggest we move to Chloe’s presentation. I believe you’re going to use the projector, Chloe? Chloe Yes. Could we close those blinds? Thanks. Oh dear, they’re still letting a lot of light in. Never mind. I’ll begin. I’d like to use this presentation as a lead-in5 to our general discussion about the future. 1 2 3 4 5 (formal) begin or cause a period in which new things or changes happen include something when making a calculation or when trying to understand something (informal) help with work that needs to be done restricted something that introduces something else Tip Take note of the context when you meet new phrasal verbs. For example, the context on this page is a fairly informal business meeting. Spoken business English is often less formal than the spoken language of business in some other languages and cultures. The same is often true for other contexts, such as spoken academic language. 26 English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Exercises 11.1 Find phrasal verbs or phrasal adjectives from the opposite page which mean the following: 1 2 3 4 5 11.2 6 7 8 9 10 introduction take into consideration find a space include start Correct the mistakes with the phrasal verbs in these sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 11.3 benefit from interrupt (two answers) help introduce unable to act freely My new curtains are excellent – they don’t bring any light in. Alba, can you pitch Mr Hill in as soon as he arrives, please? Having the meeting on the 28th would squash in better with our plans than the 30th. Our office in Buenos Aires has cashed in a lot of new business this year. When you are planning the course, make sure you set in enough free time. It’s rude to factor in when someone else is in the middle of speaking. If everyone shows in, we’ll soon get the job done. If I move up, then Rachel should be able to box in at the end of the bench. Complete this paragraph with verbs from the opposite page. My ten-year-old daughter Rosie had some friends to sleep over last night. Eight of them managed to sleep on her bedroom floor. I don’t know how (1) themselves in as it is a they very small room. Rosie’s birthday had been the previous week, but we had her party yesterday as that (2) in better with other plans. In the evening we had a barbecue and we made lots of different salads and puddings. Rosie and her friends all (3) in, and they enjoyed helping as much as eating. Later in the evening rain (4) in, so they went indoors and watched a film. I was afraid the girls would wake up ridiculously early, but we’ve had new blinds fitted and they don’t (5) any light in, so no one stirred till half past eight. 11.4 dictionary.cambridge.org Cross out the item which does not normally collocate with the phrasal expression in bold. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 2 3 4 bring in customers / profits / a loss / business a lead-in to a discussion / a bargain / a lesson a recession / rain / a new product sets in usher in a price increase / a new era / changes Over to you What other phrasal verbs with in do you have in your vocabulary notebook? Do they also have a connection with the basic meaning of in? As you learn other new ones, think about how the idea conveyed by in might help you remember the meaning of the phrasal verb. English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 27 12 Off A Off suggesting get rid of My feet were hot, so I kicked off my shoes. [removed with my feet] The robbers drove faster and faster to try and shake off the police car. [lose] I went for a long walk to work off my frustation. [get rid of a feeling (often unpleasant) by doing something energetic] Archie doesn’t worry about anything – he’ll shrug off any problem. [treat something as unimportant] B C Off suggesting separation phrasal verb definition of phrasal verb example be cut off be unable to see many other people My office is in a different building from my colleagues, so I am quite cut off. cut off sth/sb or cut sth/sb off stop providing something, e.g. aid, electricity, supplies They cut off our electricity / cut us off because we hadn’t paid the bill. split off form a separate group Two of the climbers split off from the group and went off on their own. back off (slightly informal) stop being involved in a situation, especially in order to allow other people to deal with it themselves She was interfering, so I told her to back off and let me deal with it on my own. have sth off spend time away from work I had a week off last June. cordon off sth or cordon sth off put something, e.g. a rope, a barrier, around an area in order to stop people from entering it The police have cordoned off the area the president will be visiting. Off suggesting starting or finishing I’ll fill in the first line of this spreadsheet to start you off, and then you can do the rest yourself. [help you to start] The weekly meeting usually kicks off around 2 p.m. [(informal) starts] We rounded off the meal with freshly brewed coffee. [finished] That boring meeting just finished me off. I think I’ll go home; I’ve had enough for one day. [made me feel so weak, tired or unhappy that I couldn’t continue] It’s nice to just switch off at the weekend and forget about work. [stop giving your attention to someone or something] D Other verbs with off Ben told his little brother to leave off playing his new guitar. [(informal) stop] William told his younger sister to shove off out of his room. [(informal) something that you say when you are angry to tell someone to go away.] Layla wanted to show her new bike off to her friends. [show someone or something that you are proud of to a group of people] The boss gave the receptionist a ticking off for making private calls to friends. [telling someone that you are angry with them because they have done something wrong] 28 English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Exercises 12.1 Replace the underlined words in these statements with a phrasal verb from the opposite page. 1 Eliza’s father to Eliza’s mother: Eliza’s 18 now and should make her own decisions. I think we should stop getting involved and let her run her own life. 2 Newsreader: The prime minister has treated as unimportant leadership threats from within his party, saying that they are only rumours. 3 Mother to father: I think we should let the kids run round in the garden for a bit and get rid of some of their energy so that they sleep tonight. 4 Mother to Imogen: Imogen, you MUST pay your electricity bill. If you don’t, they’ll stop providing it and you won’t have any heating. 5 Louis to Callum: Oh no! Seth wants to come back with us to Nikita’s house. He’s such a drag! How can we get away from him? 6 Chairperson: I’d like to just conclude the meeting by giving a vote of thanks to the committee for all their work this year. 7 The last 100 metres to the top of the hill just made me so tired I couldn’t continue. I had to sit down and rest for an hour. 8 I don’t want you in my room any more, so just leave! 12.2 Cross out the five mistakes in this text and write the correct form in the box next to that line. off When I come home from work, I love to just kick away my shoes and relax for the evening. It’s great to let off worrying 1 about work and round up the day with a nice meal. If I 2 have off a couple of days it’s even better. I usually go off to 3 our country cottage. I can just light off completely. I love it. 4 I never stay there long because after a while I feel a bit stood 5 off from all my friends and social life back in the city. 12.3 Complete the word puzzle. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Across 1 The boss me off with a simple task to get me used to the job. 3 The police decided to off the scene of the crime. 4 What time does the meeting off? 5 She always loves to off her latest technological gadget. 6 Look, just off playing with my phone, will you? You’re getting on my nerves. Down off for 2 The director gave him a arriving late at the meeting. 5 A group of youths off from the rest of the demonstrators and started causing trouble. English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 29 13 On Some phrasal verbs with on share a meaning of dependence/reliance, e.g. depend on*, rely on*, count on*, hinge on*, hang on*, ride on. REFERENDUM RESULT CRUCIAL, SAYS PM The prime minister said, ‘Everything hinges on the result of next week’s referendum. The future prosperity of the nation hangs on this crucial day of decision.’ Politicians of all parties agree that everything rides on the government securing a Yes vote. On can also convey the idea of continuing in an irritating or boring way, for example, harp on [talk repeatedly about something in a way that others find boring or irritating], keep on, go on (and on), ramble on [talk or write for a very long time in a boring way] and drone on [talk for a long time in a very boring way and in a monotonous voice]. Don’t keep on about the garden! I’ll mow the lawn tomorrow. We had a tedious lecture from the boss. She just went on and on about punctuality. He droned on for hours about ancient civilisations; everyone fell asleep. Read on, press on, live on and dwell on* [think or talk about a particular subject for too long] also emphasise continuation over time. HOUSING MINISTER HONOURS CHAMPION OF THE POOR ‘Her death is a great loss to society, but her memory will live on’, said the minister. Grouping verbs in this way can help you to remember them. Now look at these news items which contain some of these and other examples of phrasal verbs with on. headlines The country has been 1 by the latest rail strike, CURATOR FINDS LOSTwith MEDIEVAL MANUSCRIPT no rail services at all running today. The railway service The curator, Mr Jackson Bedgrove, happened on* the lost manuscript while searching the 2 some time, but if today’s has been museum’s archives for some missing 18th century letters. As for he focused his attention on* theaction text, 3 to the rail industry. is prolonged it may prove he said, he could hardly believe what he was reading. As he read on, he realised the importance of what he’d found... The Minister for Transport commented: ‘The country has been suffering from a 4 of local strikes since the first EDUCATION EXPERT EXPRESSES CAUTION ON HOME SCHOOLING 5 and one one in Nortown lastfrowned month. Iton* was Phoebe Garrett stated that home schooling was often by politicians, and she herself 6 pitch strike led to another. Things reached had some doubts as to its eﬀectiveness. However, to spring a new piece of legislation on parents successfully educating their children at home was right, shehope said. that The education secretary will last week and wenot can only this 7 insists that she will press on with plans to introduce a new law... is that come to an end soon.’ The minister’s 8 things will only start to improve once people appreciate the CHILDREN’S PRANK TURNS TO TRAGEDY seriousness situation. A 13-year-old girl who stole a car and took itofforthe a joyride admits that friends led her on. The prank resulted in the serious injury of a 25-year-old mother of two... The verbs marked with * on this page are all transitive. 30 English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Exercises 13.1 In the following sentences, mark each phrasal verb according to whether it has predominantly a dramatic feeling (write D), a negative feeling (N), a feeling of boredom (B), or a feeling of irritation (I). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13.2 Professor Taylor was droning on about the Ancient Greeks in his lecture this morning. The success of the peace talks hinges on both sides maintaining the present truce. Uncle Alex goes on and on about his broken chair. I’ve told him a hundred times I’ll mend it. Dwelling on the past all the time is no way to live your life. Think of your future. If you ask Beatrice about beekeeping she’ll ramble on for hours. I wish you wouldn’t keep on about money. Let’s just enjoy life. The championship now rides on Saturday’s crucial game against Real Madrid. Choose the correct word to complete these sentences. Sometimes there is more than one possible answer. 1 You can always on Daniel. He’s totally dependable. a) rely b) count c) hinge d) hang 2 I wish Georgia would stop on about Kian. It’s so tedious! a) riding b) droning c) going d) harping 3 Do make up your mind soon. So much on what you decide. a) hinges b) presses c) rides d) hangs 13.3 Correct the mistakes with the phrasal verbs in these sentences. There is one mistake in each sentence. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 13.4 Try to focus what is really important on and to ignore what is not essential. Now we’ve had a bit of a rest, it’s time to spring on again. I’m hingeing on you to let me know when my talk has gone on for long enough. Your grandmother will always happen on in your memory. This is a quiet neighbourhood where noisy behaviour is counted on. After the first few pages of the book, I decided I couldn’t be bothered to ride on. Please stop focusing on about Lena. Your relationship is over, so just forget her. I am worried about my son’s behaviour. He is so easily relied on by his friends. Complete each sentence with a verb from the opposite page. on the main points. 1 Don’t try to remember every sentence of the text. Just 2 Elizabeth is going to the news on her parents over lunch. I hope they’ll be happy for her. 3 Try to look to the future rather than on the past. 4 We’ve got a lot of work to finish today so we’d better on. 5 Julia’s not usually naughty herself, but her brothers tend to her on. 6 In most schools, wearing big, colourful jewellery and dyeing your hair bright colours would be on or even forbidden outright. 7 Whether we go for a picnic tomorrow or not will on the weather. 8 I wish he’d stop on and on about his ex-wife. 13.5 Rewrite these sentences using phrasal verbs from the opposite page. 1 James is a reliable person. 2 Dad will talk monotonously for hours about European history. 3 Many political reputations are about to be crucially affected by the outcome of next week’s election. 4 Josh never stops complaining about the litter in the office car park. It irritates me. 5 While tidying my room, I found an old diary of mine from 2001. English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 31 14 Out A Basic meanings of out in phrasal verbs A very frequent meaning of out is the opposite of in. I don’t want to leave my job but I suppose they may kick me out. [(informal) force me to leave] I’ve had enough of working for such a difficult organisation and I want out. [want to leave] Count me out! I’m far too tired to join the skiing trip today. [don’t include me] Another meaning is when something or part of something extends from its surroundings. The chalet roof juts out (over its walls) to help prevent snow from blocking the doors. [sticks out beyond the edge] The rocky peninsula juts out into the bay. Another meaning is separate. The woman picked out a kitten to take home. [chose one from a large group] We spread our wet clothes out on the grass so they could dry in the sunshine. Another meaning is distribute. Don’t eat all the sweets yourself, Ollie. Share them out among all the children. [give one to each person in the group] B 32 Other meanings of out in phrasal verbs phrasal verb definition of phrasal verb example go out (of a fire) stop burning When we woke up in the morning, the campfire still hadn’t gone out. clean out sb or clean sb out steal or take everything from a person The burglars completely cleaned us out. test out sth or test sth out see how it works in a practical situation or find out what other people think of it (the out stresses testing something in the environment in which it is intended to be used, not, for example, in a laboratory) We need to test the product out in the market before launching it. drop out not do something that you were going to do, or stop doing something The runner dropped out halfway through the marathon. lash out (usually + at sth) criticise someone or something in an angry way Sofia lashed out at me yesterday for wasting her time. yell out sth or yell sth out suddenly shout something in a loud voice, especially to get someone’s attention As I walked past the room, I heard someone yell out. draw out sth or draw sth out make something continue for longer than is usual or necessary I wish Thomas wouldn’t always draw meetings out by talking so much. sort out sth or sort sth out solve a problem or restore order to something which has become disordered A management consultant was hired to sort out the personnel problems in the company. English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Exercises 14.1 Answer the questions using phrasal verbs with out. 1 Naomi gave two apples to each of the four children. What did she do with the apples? 2 Clément took control of the situation and soon everything was OK and back to normal. What did Clément do? 3 Evie looked at all the oranges on the stall and put the best ones in her basket. What did she do with the oranges? 4 The manager forced Sam to leave the restaurant because he was behaving badly. What did the manager do? 5 The roof extends over the terrace and provides a bit of shade from the midday sun. What does the roof do? 14.2 The verb in each of these sentences sounds a little formal in the context. Find a phrasal verb from the opposite page to replace the one-word equivalent in each sentence. 1 2 3 4 5 6 14.3 Rewrite the underlined parts of these sentences using a phrasal verb with out that means the opposite of the underlined words. 1 2 3 4 5 6 14.4 I don’t have any money so you can exclude me from the shopping trip. I distributed the mints among my friends in the car. We need to resolve this mess about the misprinted tickets pretty soon. He really criticised me when I suggested he’d got it wrong. Look at those big rocks protruding from the sea. Select the good strawberries and leave the rotten ones in the box. I opened the door and heard somebody whisper from the staircase below. My position as regards the committee is that I would like to continue as a member. He always shortens the discussion with arguments about political ideology. When we got back to our campsite, the campfire had started burning. Put the leaflets together in one place on the table. The burglars stole absolutely nothing at all from us. Match the headlines 1–4 with the stories a–d below. 1 RECORD NUMBERS OF STUDENTS DROP OUT 2 DAVID BLAKE LASHES OUT AT CRITICS 3 GOVERNMENT TO TEST OUT NEW SPEED CAMERAS 4 WILSON SAYS COUNT ME OUT OF OLYMPIC TEAM a) After a trial period of six months, a decision will be made as to whether they will be installed throughout the country. b) She said she did not wish to take part as she had found the pressure too great in the last Games. c) More than 6,000 withdrew from a range of programmes, almost 1,000 more than last year, according to the minister. d) He said he was sick of the hypocrisy of people who had never done anything themselves to help the poor. English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 33 15 Up A Basic meanings of up in phrasal verbs You are probably familiar with verbs such as eat up and write up, which carry a meaning of completion. Here are some more examples: Come on, children, finish up your breakfast. It’s time to go. Well, let’s wrap up the discussion now and vote. [(informal) finish an activity] Up can also carry the meaning of upward movement or relating to an upper position. Could you lift the table up while I put the rug under it? Teddy, pick all your toys up from the floor and put them in your toy box. Another meaning of up in phrasal verbs is maintain in an upright position or strengthen, prevent from falling down or failing. Victoria was lying propped up on a pillow. [supporting herself in an upright position] The minister announced new measures to shore up the economy. [strengthen or improve an organisation or system that is not working effectively or that is likely to fail] Up can also mean increase or improve. This sauce is tasteless. I’ll add some garlic to pep it up a bit. [(informal) make something more interesting, lively or energetic] We jazzed up our all-white kitchen by adding red tiles and doorknobs here and there. [(informal) make something more attractive or interesting] B Other phrasal verbs with up Read these TV programme previews and note the phrasal verbs with up. The Man Who Hated Dogs Tuesday 9pm DDC atv History File Thursday 8.30pm The hero of this comedy, played by Nathan Farr, finds himself playing daddy to three homeless dogs, but lands up1 in trouble with his girlfriend when the local press publishes a story about him which is blown up2 to make him look like a pitiless animal-hater. An archaeologist notices some strange, pointed stones sticking up from the surface of a lake during a drought. Suspecting they may mark the site of an ancient tomb, she takes infrared photographs from the air. What shows up3 in the images deepens the mystery. After a long investigation she concludes that theories about the ancient Mosa people no longer stand up4. 1 3 (informal) finally does something, especially without having planned to 2 made to seem much worse than it is Nation on the Move Friday 10pm becomes visible appear correct when examined 4 Chips with everything Friday 7.30pm GlobalNews TV HNTV Documentary-maker Elliot Warcross picks up on5 recent rumours in the press that an ultra-rich business tycoon has attempted to buy up the world’s supply of silicon, opening up the terrifying possibility of a world monopoly in computer chips. Warcross tries to set up an interview with the mystery tycoon but receives death threats in return. Phrasalia, once a country closed to the rest of the world, has opened up since the death of its longtime ruler President Particulos. But will the newfound freedoms ultimately lead to the country splitting up into chaotic, rival republics as tensions emerge in its five provinces? 5 reacts to something that he has noticed Error warning We say ‘I went into the garden and picked some flowers.’ Don’t say ‘picked up some flowers’; pick up is used for things which are on or have fallen to the ground. 34 English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Exercises 15.1 Complete these sentences using a phrasal verb from A opposite. Put it in the correct form and, if necessary, add a pronoun as object. 1 Zoe, if you don’t your spinach, you can’t have any pudding. 2 We can the asparagus with a nice oil and vinegar dressing. 3 The prime minister appointed three new ministers in an attempt to his failing administration. 4 You’ve just dropped some of your papers. Let me for you. 5 I noticed Tim’s bicycle against a wall outside Hannah’s apartment. 6 Your black dress is a little plain – why don’t you a bit with a colourful scarf? 7 I think we should try and the meeting by 4 p.m. 8 Can you that plant pot? I need to put a saucer under it to catch the water. 15.2 Complete these dialogues using phrasal verbs from the opposite page so that the second speaker agrees with and repeats more or less what the first speaker says. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 15.3 Aaron I just don’t think his theory is correct when you look at it very carefully. Leo No, I agree. It just doesn’t Salima I think we should ask the students to form small groups. Martha Yes, we should Keira I think we should try to arrange a meeting with the whole team. Zac You’re right. We should try to Nazir I just knew Patrick’s son would get into trouble with the police one day. Anna Yes, it was inevitable he’d Jake She said they’d sold all the tickets for the concert in one go. Ruby Yes, apparently some mystery person Sam Oh look, Sebastian freckles are really visible in this photo, aren’t they? Tyler Yes, they really Harvey I think the newspapers have greatly exaggerated the story. Aisha Yes, they’ve Megan There’s a big nail protruding from that floorboard; be careful. Fellix Yes, I noticed one up when you examine it closely. them up into groups of two or three. one up. up in serious trouble. them all up over the Internet. up, don’t they? it up out of all proportion. up the other day but forgot to mention it. Which phrasal verb fits into each of these sets of collocations? 1 to 2 to a photo 3 a balloon to a story a political system 4 an ailing economy to the foundations of a building a business an interview a meeting unlimited possibilities an opportunity a new line of investigation English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 35 16 Time A How time passes 1 2 3 4 5 B Diana The sales conference will be coming around1 soon. We’d better start hurrying those sales reports along2. Paul I can’t believe that the conference is coming up3 again already. This last year seems to have slipped away4! Diana I know! There’s an awful lot to do leading up to5 the conference, especially as it’s going to be held in our branch this year. Paul Oh well, at least it breaks things up6 and makes life a bit more interesting, I suppose. Diana It hasn’t been that bad a year, surely. There was all the excitement over the new marketing campaign. Paul Oh, that completely passed me by7. It didn’t really affect me in my department. Diana OK, Paul. Time’s getting on8 a bit now. I need to head home. Let’s talk about what we need to do tomorrow. 6 (of a regular event) happening at its usual time makes a period of time more interesting by making someone do something more quickly, being different from what you are doing for making something happen more quickly the rest of the time 7 will be happening soon went unnoticed 8 passed very quickly (mainly British and Australian informal) it’s preparing in the period before an event begins getting late Spending time Right, I’m not going to spin this out1. I just have one thing to say. You only have two weeks now till the exams start and you’re going to have to pull your socks up2 if you want to pass. We’re going to set aside3 the next fortnight just for revision. In other words, we’re going to free up4 some time by cancelling all non-exam lessons like sport. All school sports matches will be held over5 until the exams are finished. We felt that would be better than trying to fit revision in6 around sport commitments. The sports staff agree that putting back7 these matches won’t cause any major problems, but we mustn’t set schedules back8 by more than two weeks or we won’t be able to fit in all the matches before the end of term. So now, put everything else out of your minds and concentrate on your revision. No more frittering time away9 – get down to some serious work. 1 2 3 4 make something continue for longer than necessary make an effort to improve, an idiom using a phrasal verb (see Unit 8 for more) use time for one purpose and no other purpose make time or money available for a particular use by not using it another way 5 6 7 8 9 delayed and arranged for a later date do it between other activities causing something to happen later than it should happen make something happen more slowly, or make something happen later than it should wasting time by using it for unimportant things Tip The following verbs can be used about money as well as time – free up and fritter away. 36 English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Exercises 16.1 Match the beginning of each sentence with its ending. 1 2 3 4 5 16.2 There was a lot of excitement My birthday seems to be The annual meeting will be I’d better go as it’s It’s getting late – can you start a) b) c) d) e) getting on now. hurrying people along? leading up to the final match. coming up some time next month. coming around more quickly every year. Read these remarks by different people and then answer the questions below. Mary I’m 63 and I’ve never had an interesting job or done anything exciting. Jack I feel I’m wasting a lot of time on useless and unimportant things. Leah I’m trying to improve my performance. I know I’ve been lazy and ineff icient. Jude I feel the days are passing very quickly and we need to solve the problem now. Adriana I’m cancelling my meetings next week so I can take time off to decorate my flat. 1 2 3 4 5 16.3 Who is trying to free up some time? Who feels that time is slipping away? Who feels life is passing them by? Who is trying to pull their socks up? Who feels they are frittering away their time? Complete this text with the correct particles. (1) much longer than they need to so that they don’t My staff often spin things get asked to do any more work. As a result they sometimes set the schedules (2) by days or even weeks, and then I have to hurry them (3) so that the work gets done on time. And not only do I have to keep an eye on the staff, I also have to find time to fit (4) consultations with management and the unions, and inevitably meetings have to be put (5) because of some unexpected emergency, or important tasks have to be held (6) till the more immediate problems can be sorted out. I try to set (7) at least one hour every day for planning, but it’s not easy. I like to take a proper lunch break and get out of the office. I find that breaks the day (8) nicely. 16.4 Correct the mistakes with the phrasal verbs in these sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 16.5 You’d get far more done if you didn’t fritter out so much time. The children tried to spin their game off so they didn’t have to go to bed. Cameron might lose his job if he doesn’t pull his collar up. We must discuss what we need to do leading up the opening of the new branch. Let’s try to make some time apart next month to discuss progress on the project. Rewrite each sentence using a phrasal verb from the box in an appropriate form. Make any other necessary changes. You may need to use a dictionary to help you. eke out dictionary.cambridge.org 1 2 3 4 5 drag out bring forward space out creep up on We’ve had to reschedule the meeting for this Tuesday as Austin will be away next week. Francesca always makes any discussion last longer than necessary. I think we should have longer intervals between our meetings. I thought I had ages to prepare for my exams, but they have arrived in no time at all. I think we should try to make the printing paper last as long as possible. English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced 37 17 Cause and effect Many of the phrasal verbs in this unit are usually used in quite formal contexts. Using these phrasal verbs will help you to improve your style when writing formal correspondence, giving presentations and writing reports and essays. Look at these formal letters to the editor of a newspaper and note the phrasal verbs connected with cause and effect. 1 Reply make it seem likely that something is true Forward 2 thought to be caused by (used for problems and bad experiences) Dear Sir/Madam, Recent events in Herean City point to1 a failure of central government to control spending by local and regional authorities. This failure can be put down to2 a long-standing reluctance to tackle local corruption, which has resulted in a situation where certain powerful local politicians feel free to act outside the law. This then contributes to a general atmosphere in which all politicians are mistrusted. Yours sincerely, G. Johnson (Ms) Reply Forward 3 (slightly informal) constitute a reasonable or likely explanation for something Dear Sir/Madam, Arthur Power’s explanation for the growth of crime in our cities just does not add up3. He attributes recent rises in crime to a decline in leisure facilities for young people and the economic recession. But the problem in fact stems from4 a longer-term neglect of the cities, and dealing with the problem depends on accepting this fact first and foremost. We have been talking about rising crime rates for decades and after the last general election the government set up an inquiry into inner-city crime, but as yet nothing seems to have come out of 5 this enquiry. 4 is caused by 5 if something comes out of a process or an event, it is one of the results Sincerely, A. H. Lowe 6 Reply Forward Dear Sir/Madam No one should be surprised that the recent education reforms have rebounded on6 the government. The reforms were rooted in7 a deep-seated elitism, which accounts for8 the fact that inequality has grown rather than diminished, as your report showed (13 November). As always, the effects have impacted most on9 poorer families, where the new system has led to parents being unable to afford a good education for their children. It all adds up to10 more misery in our schools and fewer opportunities for our young people, especially in the inner cities. had a bad effect on the person who did it with the result that they did not achieve what they were trying to achieve 7 based on, or caused by 8 explains the reason for 9 had a noticeable effect on 10 results in Yours sincerely, D. Mitchell (Prof.) Tip Always make a note in your notebook if a phrasal verb is formal or informal. 38 English Phrasal Verbs in Use Advanced Exercises 17.1 Match the beginning of each sentence with its ending. 1 Aidan’s new job will undoubtedly impact a) 2 How the situation develops will depend b) 3 Isabelle’s behaviour may well rebound c) 4 Freddie’s interest in botany stems d) 5 Her attitude to foreigners is rooted e) 6 It is impossible to point 7 The new education reform should result f) 8 Professor Bukowsky attributes the crisis g) 9 The situation in the country may lead h) i) 17.2 to one clear cause of the crisis. from a childhood spent in the rainforest. in ignorance. in significant social change. to the changes in the country’s leadership. on the reaction from the USA. to a civil war. on his family. on her if she is not careful. Correct the mistakes with the particles in these sentences. There is one mistake in each sentence. 1 Theodore puts the problems down to the government, but I attribute them for the general world economic situation. 2 To a large extent, how a person accounts for the problems in their lives seems to depend largely of their own parents’ attitudes to difficult situations. 3 I believe the new legislation will contribute to a general improvement in the standard of living, but Ben thinks it will result from increased poverty for most people. 4 The desire for reform has come off a general desire to improve the situation, but I suspect the proposed changes may rebound on the government. 5 The proposals are rooted in an appropriate awareness of the problems that exist, but I do not feel that what is proposed adds up a coherent programme of action. 17.3 Rewrite each sentence replacing the verb with a phrasal verb expression based on the word in brackets. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17.4 The school’s rituals and traditions have originated from its long history. (root) My mother attributes the problem to a decline in moral values. (put) How do you think the changes will affect your business? (impact) The economic recession inevitably led to increased unemployment. (result) How would you explain the recent increase in violent crime? (account) Joel’s criticism of Erica may have a bad effect on him now that she’s his boss! (rebound) I do not feel that the writer’s analysis of the problem makes sense. (add) Some unforeseen problems have resulted from the change in legislation. (come) Answer these questions using full sentences. 1 What would you put global warming down to? 2 What do you think has led to the cur